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Thursday, January 3, 2013
Israeli underwater sensor technology

See Everything, Even Under Water
In an era where nations argue over energy resources in territorial waters,
unmanned submarines and terrorism threats, the ability to see under water is
an indispensable need. Ram Agadi of Elta explains how to make the sea

Arie Egozi 3/1/2013

The term ‘underwater threat’ immediately evokes images of a submarine armed
with torpedoes. These days, however, underwater threats are much more
diversified. In order to spot these threats in time, state-of-the-art
sensors are required. The main underwater sensor is sonar, which transmits
sound waves, and the reflected echoes of these waves enable the user to
determine whether a threat is present and where. It is a sort of underwater
radar, except it transmits sound waves instead of electromagnetic radiation.

Underwater Threats

Elta, a subsidiary of Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), realized years ago
that underwater threats are becoming more severe. Seaport and offshore oil
and gas drilling rigs have become targets for enemies, and primarily for
terrorists. A world leading manufacturer of radar systems, Elta entered this
field as it offers a substantial business potential and as there is a
considerable demand, in Israel and elsewhere, for the protection of maritime

Ram Agadi is the executive in charge of marketing Elta’s underwater sensors,
and according to him, the threats have become more serious, and the needs
have evolved accordingly. “If we go back to the submarine image,” Agadi
says, “while a standard radar sensor cannot detect a submarine traveling
even a few meters under the sea surface, a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar)
sensor can do it easily. In other words, what could not be achieved using
the old sensors can now be achieved using SAR sensors of the type installed
on airborne vehicles as well as on Israel’s spy satellites.”

In order to protect seaports and maritime installations all over the world,
Elta develops smart sensors based on optics, sonar and radar technologies.
In order to demonstrate the importance of these technologies, imagine and
old WWII movie showing an underwater metal net that divers must cut in order
to allow a submarine to enter a port unobserved. Apparently, this underwater
net has not gone out of fashion, but has become much more sophisticated.
While such a net provided a physical metal barrier in WWII, today it
constitutes one elaborate sensor. If anyone touched or attempted to cut it,
it would trigger an immediate alert.

“We manufacture this high-tech net ourselves and have already delivered a
few, which now guard the entrances of several harbors around the world,”
says Agadi. He was not forthcoming with any more technical details, as the
protective net undoubtedly has a few surprises in store for anyone
attempting to break through it. At the same time, Agadi explains that in
addition to the metal wires, the underwater net also includes optical
fibers, each one of which is, in fact, a long sensor. Any contact or attempt
to cut such a sensor will alert the security personnel on the shore. The
smart protective net can provide an accurate alert with a resolution of 50
cm of the break-in attempt, so that a defensive force may be dispatched to
the location and neutralize the threat.

Elta also offers effective solutions in the shore-based naval radar system
category. Elta’s ELI-3320 Port Guard Integrated Protection System combines a
radar surveillance sensor with a sonar sensor and electro-optical sensor to
provide multilayered surface and sub-surface surveillance performance.
According to Agadi, this solution can detect a swimmer even in choppy sea
conditions, and for this reason it is installed at numerous sites where the
attempted break-in by a single terrorist carrying an explosive charge is a
viable threat.

In some cases, the actual detection takes place when the swimmer comes
ashore. For this purpose, Elta offers its ELM-2112 Persistent Ground &
Coastal Surveillance Radar System. This radar ‘stares’ at a specific
direction where a threat is expected to appear, and detects any suspicious
motion on the shore. This system may also be integrated with a sonar sensor
to provide excellent surveillance performance.

Underwater Loudspeakers

Sound waves propagate very effectively under water, and Elta has also
developed a system of underwater loudspeakers. When a swimmer or diver is
detected in the water, he may be addressed in the style of ‘you have been
spotted, surrender!’ Such loudspeakers were installed at some of the sites
for which Elta supplied the naval protection systems.

Water temperature and salinity affect the detection ranges of sonar systems.
Background noises such as the noise generated by sewage pipes emptying into
the sea, close to the shore, also have an effect. “When we install a naval
protection system, we take into account all of the environmental conditions,
so as to enable detection under all circumstances,” Agadi says.

Elta also offers interesting combinations associated with IAI’s unmanned
capabilities for the maritime medium. One such system involves an unmanned
surface vessel fitted with a radar sensor, which can perform routine
security operations over many hours around such strategic targets as
offshore oil or gas drilling rigs. “The market for maritime installation
protection is growing constantly and today, countries and corporations
defend maritime installations that were hardly ever defended in the past,”
says Agadi.

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