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Monday, May 31, 2010
Excerpt: San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, 12 June 1994

San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea,
12 June 1994
www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/385ec082b509e76c41256739003e636d/7694fe2016f347e1c125641f002d49ce

SECTION V : NEUTRAL MERCHANT VESSELS AND CIVIL AIRCRAFT

Neutral merchant vessels

67. Merchant vessels flying the flag of neutral States may not be attacked
unless they:

(a) are believed on reasonable grounds to be carrying contraband or
breaching a blockade, and after prior warning they intentionally and clearly
refuse to stop, or intentionally and clearly resist visit, search or
capture;
(b) engage in belligerent acts on behalf of the enemy;
(c) act as auxiliaries to the enemy s armed forces;
(d) are incorporated into or assist the enemy s intelligence system;
(e) sail under convoy of enemy warships or military aircraft; or
(f) otherwise make an effective contribution to the enemy s military action,
e.g., by carrying military materials, and it is not feasible for the
attacking forces to first place passengers and crew in a place of safety.
Unless circumstances do not permit, they are to be given a warning, so that
they can re-route, off-load, or take other precautions.

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