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Wednesday, November 21, 2012
Archives: 2009 Israel-USA Memorandum of Understanding that failed to stop the flow of weapons to Gaza

[Dr. Aaron Lerner - IMRA:

"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." George
Santayana ]

Israel-US Memorandum of Understanding

16 Jan 2009
Memorandum of Understanding
Between
Israel and the United States Regarding
Prevention of the Supply of Arms and Related Materiel to Terrorist Groups
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Reference+Documents/Israel-US_Memorandum_of_Understanding_16-Jan-2009.htm

Israel and the United States (the "Parties"),

Recalling the steadfast commitment of the United States to Israel's
security, including secure, defensible borders, and to preserve and
strengthen Israel's capability to deter and defend itself, by itself,
against any threat or possible combination of threats;

Reaffirming that such commitment is reflected in the security, military and
intelligence cooperation between the United States and Israel, the Strategic
Dialogue between them, and the level and kind of assistance provided by the
United States to Israel;

Taking note of the efforts of Egyptian President Mubarak, particularly the
recognition that securing Gazaís border is indispensable to realizing a
durable and sustainable end to fighting in Gaza;

Unequivocally condemning all acts, methods, and practices of terrorism as
unjustifiable, wherever and by whomever committed and whatever the
motivation, in particular, the recent rocket and mortar attacks and other
hostile activity perpetrated against Israel from Gaza by terrorist
organizations;

Recognizing that suppression of acts of international terrorism, including
denying the provision of arms and related materiel to terrorist
organizations, is an essential element for the maintenance of international
peace and security;

Recognizing that the acquisition and use of arms and related materiel by
terrorists against Israel were the direct causes of recent hostilities;

Recognizing the threat to Israel of hostile and terrorist activity from
Gaza, including weapons smuggling and the build-up of terrorist
capabilities, weapons and infrastructure; and understanding that Israel,
like all nations, enjoys the inherent right of self defense, including the
right to defend itself against terrorism through appropriate action;

Desiring to improve bilateral, regional and multilateral efforts to prevent
the provision of arms and related materiel to terrorist organizations,
particularly those currently operating in the Gaza Strip, such as Hamas;

Recognizing that achieving and maintaining a durable and sustainable
cessation of hostilities is dependent upon prevention of smuggling and
re-supply of weapons into Gaza for Hamas, a terrorist organization, and
other terrorist groups, and affirming that Gaza should not be used as a base
from which Israel may be attacked;

Recognizing also that combating weapons and explosives supply to Gaza is a
multi-dimensional, results-oriented effort with a regional focus and
international components working in parallel, and that this is a priority of
the United Statesí and Israelís efforts, independently and with each other,
to ensure a durable and sustainable end to hostilities;

Recognizing further the crucial need for the unimpeded, safe and secure
provision of humanitarian assistance to the residents of Gaza;

Intending to work with international partners to ensure the enforcement of
relevant United Nations Security Council Resolutions on counterterrorism in
relation to terrorist activity in Gaza;

Have reached the following understandings:

1. The Parties will work cooperatively with neighbors and in parallel with
others in the international community to prevent the supply of arms and
related materiel to terrorist organizations that threaten either party, with
a particular focus on the supply of arms, related materiel and explosives
into Gaza to Hamas and other terrorist organizations.

2. The United States will work with regional and NATO partners to address
the problem of the supply of arms and related materiel and weapons transfers
and shipments to Hamas and other terrorist organizations in Gaza, including
through the Mediterranean, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea and eastern Africa, through
improvements in existing arrangements or the launching of new initiatives to
increase the effectiveness of those arrangements as they relate to the
prevention of weapons smuggling to Gaza. Among the tools that will be
pursued are:

Enhanced U.S. security and intelligence cooperation with regional
governments on actions to prevent weapons and explosives flows to Gaza that
originate in or transit their territories; including through the involvement
of relevant components of the U.S. Government, such as U.S. Central Command,
U.S. European Command, U.S. Africa Command, and U.S. Special Operations
Command.

Enhanced intelligence fusion with key international and coalition naval
forces and other appropriate entities to address weapons supply to Gaza;

Enhancement of the existing international sanctions and enforcement
mechanisms against provision of material support to Hamas and other
terrorist organizations, including through an international response to
those states, such as Iran, who are determined to be sources of weapons and
explosives supply to Gaza.

3. The United States and Israel will assist each other in these efforts
through enhanced sharing of information and intelligence that would assist
in identifying the origin and routing of weapons being supplied to terrorist
organizations in Gaza.

4. The United States will accelerate its efforts to provide logistical and
technical assistance and to train and equip regional security forces in
counter-smuggling tactics, working towards augmenting its existing
assistance programs.

5. The United States will consult and work with its regional partners on
expanding international assistance programs to affected communities in order
to provide an alternative income/employment to those formerly involved in
smuggling.

6. The Parties will establish mechanisms as appropriate for military and
intelligence cooperation to share intelligence information and to monitor
implementation of the steps undertaken in the context of this Memorandum of
Understanding and to recommend additional measures to advance the goals of
this Memorandum of Understanding. In so far as military cooperation is
concerned, the relevant mechanism will be the United States-Israel Joint
Counterterrorism Group, the annual Military to Military discussion, and the
Joint Political Military Group.

7. This Memorandum of Understanding of ongoing political commitments
between the Parties will be subject to the laws and regulations of the
respective parties, as applicable, including those governing the
availability of funds and the sharing of information and intelligence.

This Memorandum of Understanding was signed on 16 January, 2009 at
Washington, in duplicate, in the English language.

FOR ISRAEL: FOR THE UNITED
STATES:

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